ONE BILLION COUCH POTATOES [coach]9/1/2013 7:11:08 AM
ChairmanMao\'sportraitstilldecoratesmanyhouseholdsinYaoli,McAfee Coupon Code 2013 aformercommunistguerillabaseinChina\'sJiangxiprovince. Butwhatmesmerizesthepeoplethesedaysistelevision. OnatypicalMondayafternoon, twochildrensittransfixedbeforetheirfamily\'sflickeringsetwatchingatangledromanticdramafromHongKong. Afewdoorsdown, aretiredcouplegiddilytellvisitorsaboutthevariousprovincialstationstheirlocalcableprovidercarries. \"WegetShanghai, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hunan, \"saysthehusbandwithevidentpride. \"Wehave12inall. \"AllofChina, itseems, ischannelsurfingonawaveofnewentertainment. Cablenetworkscharging$1or$2amonthhavewiredupallbutthesmallesthamlets, andsatellitedishes, ostensiblyillegal, adornrooftopsacrosstheheartland, nettingfreeprogrammingfromasfarawayasIndia. Agenerationago, justonein10ruralChinesehouseholdsownedaTVset. Todaypenetrationisalmostuniversal, asarethecostumedramas, urbansoaps, copshowsandcookingclassesthatcomposethetypicalprogrammingfare. Admenpeppertheseofferingswithedgypitchesforskin-whiteningcreams, disposablediapersandBigMacs. Chinamaybelatetothetelevisionage, butthathasn\'tdampenedthedramaofitsarrivaloneiota. Almostovernight, thegovernmenthasturnedprovincialTVstations--onceessentiallyconduitsforpropaganda--intocash-richconglomeratesthatcompetewithoneanotherforviewers. TechnologyiserodingnationalmonopolybroadcasterChinaCentralTelevision\'sgriponwhatsomedaywillbecometheworld\'slargestmediamarket. Thelatestinnovation--digitaltelevision--couldrenderCCTV\'svastterrestrialinfrastructureobsoleteby2015, theyearChinahaspromisedtoendanalogbroadcasts. Someday, Beijinghopes, strengthenedprovincialnetworksmaycompetewithinternationalchannelslikeCNNandStarTV. \"Turning[provincial]conglomeratesintocompetitiveentitiesisactuallywhatthestatepromotes, \"saysUniversityofIllinoisresearcherRuoyunBai. But, sheadds, \"thereisstillacontradictionbetweentheimpulsetocommercializeandtheimpulsetocontrol. \"Asthepast50yearsofWesterncultureattests, thesocioeconomicimpactoftelevisionisbroadandpowerful--anditgoesbeyondanythingcensorscouldeverhopetocontain. Alreadytheindustry\'scrasscommercializationhasbeguntochangeChina\'simageofitselfasanegalitarian, peasantsociety. Today\'shottestprograms(andads)portraythecountryasurban, capitalistandupwardlymobile--thefutureChinaaspirestoattain. \"It\'sallverybeautifulmenandwomenlivinginverybighouses, \"saysSunWei, executivedirectorforinternationalrelationsofShanghaiMediaGroup, aprovincialconglomerate. Whichistosayit\'sallaboutmoney. Againstabackdropofbreak--neckeconomicandsocialchange, televisionhasemergedasakeydriverofboth;itisatonceacasestudyinsuccessfulmarketreformandatoolthat\'sreshapingthenation\'sselfidentity. Assuch, televisionisdefiningthebetterfuturemillionsofChinesearestrivingfor. AtitscoreliesapowerfuldynamicthatisfamiliarintheWest, butbrand-newinChina. Programmerseagertomaximizeadrevenuesandproducersyearningtocreatethenexthitshowarecateringtoeverypotentialadvertiser\'stargetdemographic:theurbanconsumer. Yetwhattheydelivergoesouttoafarwideraudience--the800millionChinesewhodon\'tyetliveincoastalcities. Televisionis\"thesourceofculturalaspirationtoday, \"saysJosephChen, amediascholarattheChineseUniversityofHongKong. \"Itreinforcesmythsabouturbanareas\'beingplacesofaffluenceandabundance. \"AswithsomanyfacetsofChina\'spost-Maorevival, television\'stransformationbeganasasimpleaccountingexercise. TakingcuesfromneighboringHongKongandTaiwan, leadersinBeijingcraftedastrategytoshoreupwhathadbecomeavastandcostlypropagandaapparatusofprovincialandcity-levelTVstations, whichbeforethereformsoftenprovidedlittlemorethanrerunsofthesameprogramsbroadcastonnationalTV. Allmajorprovincialchannels, forexample, stillrelayChinaCentralTelevision\'s7p. m. newsbroadcastlive. Beijing\'splanwastocreatemoreinterestingprograms, attractnewviewersandselladsfortheshows. FollowingthatWesternscript, China\'sTVstationscametoseethemselvesasentertainmentvendors, notmouthpiecesfortheCommunistParty. \"ThiscommerciallogichasbecomethefabricofChinesetelevision, \"saysChen. ThenewformulayieldsprogramminglikeGuangxiTelevision\'srecenthitdrama, \"LoveoftheAegeanSea. \"SetinShanghai, itchroniclesalovetrianglebetweenthedaughterofwealthyindustrialists, herfiance(adapperladbeinggroomedtotakeoverherfamily\'sbusinessempire)anda\"poor\"ShanghaigirlheencountersonvacationintheGreekisles. Unfoldinginaworldoflavishvillas, uniformedmaids, worldtravelandlonglimousines, thestoryrevolvesaroundcharacterswithfloppyTaiwanese-stylehaircutsforwhommoneyisapparentlynoobject. AsBainotesinherauthoritativestudy\"ThePoliticalEconomyofContemporaryChineseTelevisionEntertainment, \"Chineseprogrammingshiftedintheearly1990sfromwenyi, or\"literatureandarts\"toyule, \"entertainment. \"Notcoincidentally, paramountleaderDengXiaopinghadjustlaunchedhiscampaigntohasteneconomicreforms, strengtheninganascentadvertisingindustryandallowingmediatobecomemorecommercial. AfewyearslaterChinaallowedindependentfirmstocreateshowsforstatetelevisionandgave34provincialnetworkspermissiontolaunchasatellitechanneleach. Thosereformsallowedprovincialnetworkstoexpand, viasatellite, torichcoastalaudiences. HunanTelevision, incentralChina, wasquicktocapitalizeonthisopportunity;severalshowsbecamenationalhitsinthelate1990s. Advertiserssooncaughton;leadingprovincialstationsbecamebudgetalternativestoCCTV. Likeprogramming, commercialscaterslavishlytourbansensibilities. Tosellitssuds, forexample, Shanghai\'sReebBeershowsyuppiesdrinkinginagarden. ToothpastemakerCrestcreatesaboy-meets-girlencounterinaglass-and-steelofficetower(whichpredictablygoesawryinanelevatorduetotheyoungman\'sgarlicbreath). NikepresentsteenagersinlongshortsandbaggyshirtswhodribblebasketballsonShanghai\'sBund, andMcDonald\'sfeatureship-hopteensonskateboards. InaspotforapopularChineseexercisemachine, awomanpinchesherbellyflabandconfides:\"I\'vehadthisstomachsinceIhadmybaby. \"Herfrienddutifullysuggeststhedevice, saying\"itmakesyoufeelbetter--and, ofcourse, moresexy. \"Adecadeago, suchadsmighthavebredresentmentinthehinterland. Nottoday, saysVivecaChan, chairmanofGreyGlobalGroupChina. \"We\'reseeingverycity-driventrends, \"shesays, \"thingsthatwouldhavebeentooradicalevenfiveyearsago. \"Televisionhasbecomeatoolforreorientingpeopletowardamoreurbanfuture, bethatthrougheducationalprogramminglikecookingclasses(popularwithwould-bechefsinthecountrysideasatoolforfindingworkinthecity)oradsthatgivecuesonthelatestfashiontrends. \"There\'smoremobility, \"shesays. \"Sowhat\'shappeninginthecitiesismuchmorerelevant[nationally]. \"Evenwhentheproductisatop-of-thelineimportedSUV. Lastyear, ChanhelpedVolkswagenlaunchits$100, 000TouareginChinawithadramaticcampaign. Thestar:adventurerandChinesereal-estatemogulWangShi, whodescribeshis2003MountEverestascentasthemuscularVWtraversesTibetanwilderness. Wang, anavidmountaineer, recountshisagonizingclimbasmonkschant, prayerflagssnapandHimalayangaleshowl. \"It\'shard, really, todefinepassion, \"hemuses. \"Iguessit\'swhenyou\'reneversatisfiedwithlife. \"Despitethesuccessoftheprovincialstationsinbringinginfreshprogrammingandadvertising, they\'renotyetrealthreatstoCCTV, whose900millionviewersdwarfprovincialaudiences. SaysAaronTsoi, media-planningdirectorforMediaCominBeijing, halfofallTVadspendinginChinatargetsthe10largestcities. ProvincialsatellitechannelsfaceanuphillbattleagainstCCTV\'s12stationsandhighratings. \"Inprinciple, onesatellitechannelcancoverthewholecountry, buttherealityisthatthey\'renotyetthatsignificant, \"hesays. Oneprominentupstartaimstochangethat. TheShanghaiMediaGroup, establishedin2002whenthecity\'stelevisionradiostationsweremerged, hassinceinvestedheavilyinnewtechnologyandtorebrandconstituentstations. Itsfashionnetwork, \"ChannelYoung, \"runstrendydramas, fashionshowsandcelebritynewstargetingteensandyoungadults. Itssatellitechannel--DragonTV--combinesprovocativetalk, livesportingeventsandCNN-stylenewscoverage. Likeahandfulofleadingprovincialconglomerates, SMGhasnationalambitionsbeyondwhatleadersinBeijingcurrentlyallow. \"Ofcoursethestatehasindustry-managementpolicyandregulations, \"saysSMG\'sSunWei, \"butwehopethatourchannelscangraduallymoveouttoanationalaudience. \"ManyexpertsthinkthatChinawillgiveprovincialstationsmoreleewayinthefuture, followingreformsalreadymadeintheprintmedia. SMG, infact, hasalreadyacquiredasecondsatellitechannel, ToonMax, aswellasastableofinternationalpartnersincludingtheU. S. businesschannelCNBC, Viacom\'skiddiechannelNickelodeonandSouthKoreanhome-shoppingchannelCJ. Thetie-upsputSMGingoodsteadtobecomealeadingproviderofready-madeprogramming, whichisthensoldtoothernetworks. BeijingisnotyetreadytomakethesweepingregulatorychangesthatwouldallowSMGtodelivermoreofitsownmaterialtoanationalaudience, suchasuppingthelimitonsatellitechannels, allowingprovincialstationstomergeandreducingCCTV\'smonopolypowers. Butofficialsaremakingitsomewhateasierforprovincialstationstoreachawideraudience. Thisyear, SMGbeatoutCCTVtowinChina\'sfirstlicenseforIPTV, televisionstreamedontheInternet. SMGisalsoaheadinthepotentiallyrevolutionaryareaofdigitalpaytelevision. Itrecentlybegansellingapackageof16digitalchannelstolocalcableoperatorsacrossChina, whichpreviouslycouldaccessonlyitstwosatellitestations. Thoughstillanembryonicmarket, SMGclaimsithassigneduptwothirdsofanestimated1millionDTVhouseholdsnationwide, puttingitaheadofCCTV\'scompetingventure. SaysFangMeiqin, anewmediaanalystattheconsultancyBDAinBeijing, \"DigitalTVwillhelpthesmallerplayerscompete. \"SMG\'sSunWeiisn\'tforecastingamiracle. \"Youcan\'tsuddenlyturnallthethingsyou\'vegivenpeoplemoreorlessforfreeintosomethingtheyhavetopayfor, \"heacknowledges. Hissolution:selladifferentproduct. \"Qualitycontent. Dramas, movies--andinthefuture, interactiveservices, \"hemuses. \"Mayberealityshowswhereviewerscanchoosethewinner. \"ThecensorsinBeijingmaynotapprove. Theirrecentdecisiontobanpopularpolicedramas(reportedlybecausethetalesofgraftandcorruptionhittooclosetohome)showsthattelevisionremainsfettered. Butlikesomuchelseintoday\'sChina, theindustryisarivetingworkinprogress. GetNewsweekonyourTablet

Man accused of impersonating police [coach]8/20/2013 12:32:48 PM
Man accused of impersonating police A Mississauga man has been charged with impersonating an RCMP officer after Toronto police discovered a van that has been outfitted with various police accoutrements including a complete set of flashing lights.Diapers.com Coupon Detective Constable Luke Watson said police first noticed the van about a week ago when it pulled over a car on Burnhamthorpe Rd. near Dundas St. W. "We were on our way to another call and couldn't stop, " said Watson, adding they took down the licence plate for further investigation because "something didn't look right. " After a few days of digging, officers said they watched the van pull over cars in the fashion of a police officer making a routine traffic stop. The Mississauga man was arrested at his home last night without incident. "(There was) a complete lights package in the van . even mounted a laptop like you would see in a cruiser, " said Watson. "There was radio communication, GPS and a control sensor for the lights. " Police say the suspect possessed a fake RCMP badge and was armed with a plastic Berretta in a holster. When asked by detectives why he was pulling over drivers, Watson said the suspect admitted to pulling over people who had done something to make him angry.

Successful Business Relies On Professional Logo Design [coach]8/10/2013 11:28:23 AM
Has there been a thriving business without a professionally done logo design?Nike Coupon Codes 2013 Think about this: The business company that wins over trust and becomes image of credibility is close to the heart of the consumers. In other words, a business logo draws and builds trust and becomes an identity for brand recognition. An image or a simple logo that is popularly associated to ones business company is an impetus for success. Consumers want a business with its professional logo design. This design shows that the business is serious and is set apart from basement operators and fly-by workers. What actually instills in the minds of the regular clients of ones business is the logo design. The educational institutions, small Net cafs, restaurants, and other business establishments out there have their logos that partially reveal about their business philosophy and identity, in general. Imagine how a toddler reacts whenever he sees the logo images of the toy store, of the food chain he loves, of the ice cream that attracts his palate, and of many other business establishments known to him in his young age. Inferentially, the logo designs are linked to the business company and to its service or products. Is there something worse than without a logo design? The impact of business logo design is inculcated in the minds of the consumers. Imagine a lousy design of logo that flaunts your business name. Consumers are wise buyers and are having the decisive eyes for art. Poorly designed business logo is a turn off and is a better for nothing stuff. What does a Person Need to Understand about Logo Designs? Assessing the type of business one has and the impact that one wants to create to his consumers matters a lot. Once the business entrepreneur starts showing the business logo design on the Web or in anywhere, the branding process begins as well. Somewhere down the line, the poorly made logo has to be changed. Consequently, if this would be the last better alternative, the efforts of building up a name in the industry would likely just go down the drain. Before things turn out what you least expected, get things right from the start. Trust professional hands that make a living out of designing business logo. Professional business logo designs do not only grab the consumers by their eyeballs but also those bewitch them to try and trust the credibility of the company. What Quality a Business Logo Design does Possess? Watch for the business logos of McDonalds, Nike, and Apple! Simplicity tops most of the existing logo designs. Moreover, a logo design should be unique, bold, and audience preferences-centered. Know what groups of consumers you target and what impact you would like to create and rely on the professionally known hands who will direct your business towards roads of success. Commercialize the products and the company name through a professional logo design. Success is just within ones grasp. Simply pick the best artist for the logo design and things would just turn out what you always dreamt of.

Mixed Martial Arts Clothing Finds A New Audience [coach]8/4/2013 10:44:38 AM
mixed martial arts clothing finds a new audience Sheila Garrison,6PM Coupon 20% Off an educator from Maryland, called the hairstyle "different, " but all the attention paid to it brought home to her that Mrs. Obama "represents women in a beautiful way. You look at her and you are proud to be a woman. Then you search your photo files there and click on the one you want to insert. Click it. It will upload to the blank box. . So here I find myself, firmly on the fifty hard line of appreciation for Dead Heat. It's fun, campy, and enjoyable; yet it's plot is weak and absurd. I can understand why fans love it and why detractors loathe it. These handbags are made by many of the same manufacturers, but of better-quality material. This is especially important for thread; that's the last thing most people notice, and the first thing to go on poor-quality Jewelry Wholesale handbags. If possible work with a wholesaler that offers a mailing list and who will send you email newsletters about special offers and new lines that have arrived. . It depends on your needs and comfort what you want to carry on with. Anything and everything is style today. Though the kind of apparels you choose is the only thing you need to concentrate on. . Press and Hold down the Fn and the Esc keys together. D. Keep these keys held down and press power. Lemmond Lady easily won a point-to-point at Belharbour a fortnight ago and won't need to be anything special to make a winning start under Rules. Kris Kindle ran poorly at Punchestown last time after looking promising while Patrick Mullins takes the ride again on Overwater, who showed a glimmer of ability on his debut at Limerick last month. Vic Dancer didn't run too badly in a better race at Fairyhouse last time but it's ROMANTIC FASHION who looks the one to be on as she caught the eye when staying on nicely behind a couple of potentially useful performers at Leopardstown and will have come on a great deal for the experience. . So even supporting characters do their part in this madness. Nevertheless, after reading it again, these universal themes could be enjoyed by any audience. Gals could see some of themselves in Reiichi, whether it is his appearance or maybe his family issues. In his History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides includes a number of made up speeches based upon "what was called for in each situation". While this is frowned upon in modern histories, it seems to have been perfectly acceptable practice then and their inclusion had no bearing on the historicity of the rest of the work. Every work by an ancient historian that I have read contains such speeches, although the quality and relevance to the situation varies. .

Magic of '70s and '80s recreated at grand finale of Lakme India Fashion Week [coach]7/25/2013 9:57:39 AM
Magic of '70s and '80s recreated at grand finale of Lakme India Fashion Week Mumbai,Heuer Carrera Replica Watches Mar 10 (ANI): The grand finale of the Lakme India Fashion Week (LIFW) saw designer Suneet Verma spectacularly recreating the magic of the '70s and '80s with his collection titled 'Night Fever'. His collection was divided into five segments - 'Color My World', 'Call of the Wild', 'Pucchi Prints', 'Preppy Argyle' and 'The Bold and the Beautiful'. "What is interesting for me is that when you do an event like this, it used to be kind of a spectacle, and at the same time make a lot of interesting sense (and) a fashion trend. I took the '70s and '80s as the inspiration of . , which is where the jet set the world over, " said Verma. "I want to actually interpret trends, not only just fashion but also in terms of architecture, and also in terms of music, therefore music by Medieval Punditz and Shai'r and Func remixed the beautiful disco of Saturday Night Fever, " added Verma.Buy Replica Watches The show ended in a shower of gold confetti falling over the ramp as the three faces of Lakme, Lisa Haydon, Amrit Maghera and Indrani Dasgupta walked down the ramp with Verma to thunderous applause.

Milan designers propose assertive winter looks [coach]7/19/2013 11:54:25 AM
Milan designers propose assertive winter looks A model wears a creation for Giorgio Armani women's Fall-Winter 2013-14 collection,Lane Bryant Coupon part of the Milan Fashion Week, unveiled in Milan, Italy, Monday, Feb. The looks presented during six days of fashion previews that ended Monday were structured and solid, inspired by architecture and design and employing sturdy fabrics to create fresh shapes. In many ways, it was technology-driven fashion. Designers continued to experiment with and create new materials. There was a lot of leather and fur worked in new ways. Mohair was worked as a fur substitute. Spandex was used as a contrast to soften the looks, and cashmere, lace and revealing transparencies maintained a feminine air. The use of technology was also reflected in patterns, which at times were based on distorted digital photos or a pixilated effect. The silhouette was wide at the shoulder, cinched at the waist and often flared at the bottom. The most obvious reference was to the hourglass. Hemlines were mostly a proper, below-the-knee length there were also super-short and long versions. The looks were rarely mannish, although at times androgynous. It was a big season for big coats big furs. There were many fur accessories, like shawls and stoles, and all-out coats tended to be fashioned out of dyed fur in bold yellows, reds and pinks even fake animal prints. The color palette was urban darks with flashes of bright contrast. The revelation of the season for footwear was the thigh-high boot that appeared to be tights. The latest bags were a large shopper, even larger backpacks mostly small ladylike handbags. The fashion caravan moves on to Paris, leaving Italy to contemplate a new government and welcome a new pope. ARMANI Giorgio Armani had the last word at Milan Fashion Week, and not only where the clothes were concerned. Speaking to reporters between his two shows on Monday, the closing day of preview shows for the fall-winter 2013-2014 season, the designer lashed out at some colleagues who in his opinion are more interested in spectacles than sales. "One thing is to put on a play, the other is to create fashion, " Armani said. "It's not about models wearing gold crowns, '' Armani said, taking a jab at Sunday's Dolce show with its Byzantine princess motif. " (It's) about what you can find in the store. " Armani has said 75 percent of his second line, Emporio Armani, which showed Saturday, has already been sold. It may sound like the 78-year-old, ever-tanned, white-haired designer who put the made-in-Italy label on the international fashion map in the early 1980s was pontificating. But last night's Oscar dress list showed Armani head-to-head with Dior, proof the designer knows what he's talking about. Along with Jessica Chastain and Naomi Watts, Armani dressed child star and best actress nominee Quvenzhane Wallis in a sparkling navy blue dress with a big back bow from his Armani Junior line. Armani's latest winter collection came almost all in black, with accents of gray, navy and red. The chic-yet-simple collection spoke to a contemporary woman, who in the designer's own words is "a little man, a little woman, and a lot of both. " Admiring front-row guests included singer Janet Jackson and a scattering of royalty: Charlene Wittstock, wife of Prince Albert of Monaco, and Tatiana Blatnik, wife of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark. The collection featured ultra-feminine long skirts in velvet or sequined chiffon, worn with tiny double-breasted or flared jackets. But the look also came with wide pants, complete with decorative suspenders. Evening pants were paired with dazzling sequined tops. Armani had more pants, including jumpsuits and Bermuda shorts, in his collection than most designers this round, where ladylike skirts and dresses were the preferred look. Armani's only concession to eccentric show stoppers were his funky Russian-inspired felt and furry hats, worn with every outfit. "To each his own crown, " the designer quipped.Pampers Coupons FERRE The Ferre winter woman is bold and yet feminine. She endorses the structured look so popular for this round of preview showings, with prominent shoulders and waist cinched in a wide obi belt. A revisitation of the famed Ferre structured shirt, with its prominent collar and wide sleeve, fits perfectly in the new look. Sophisticated black is her preferred shade, softened by an occasional flirt with cream white and chocolate brown. Her footwear is determined, almost nasty, with high-heeled booties sporting aggressive ankle straps. "She rediscovers her femininity, without losing her taste for architectural design, " designers Federico Piaggi and Stefano Citron said backstage after Monday's show on the last day of Milan's winter Fashion Week. The designing duo joined Ferre several seasons ago. The brand, famous for its structured styles, has been through hard times since its founder, architect-turned-designer Gianfranco Ferre, died unexpectedly in 2007. At the moment the Ferre family is in talks with the Paris Group that bought the brand, to keep the Ferre headquarters in the famed glass palazzo in downtown Milan, which became synonymous with the label. In the meantime, the show was moved to a space in a Milan museum often used for fashion events.

Microbes yield secrets of survival [coach]7/2/2013 10:17:51 PM
Microbes yield secrets of survival LIVERMORE,Football America Promotional Code Calif. When humans gather in communities, they specialize and adapt. Farmers grow crops and raise animals for food based on the area's climate and soil. Builders fashion structures engineered to keep their inhabitants warm in winter and cool in summer. Physicians tend to the sick; police and firefighters protect the public. Communities of microorganisms, researchers are finding, exhibit very similar behavior genetically evolving, specializing and cooperating in ways that allow them to adapt to extreme conditions of temperature, acidity, toxicity and pressure. In the first comprehensive study of gene expression in a microbial community from an "extreme" natural environment, scientists from Lawrence Livermore and Oak Ridge national laboratories, the University of California, Berkeley, and Xavier University in New Orleans have identified more than 2, 000 proteins produced by five key species in the community. More than 500 of the proteins chains of amino acids linked together in an order specified by a gene's DNA sequence appear to be unique to the community, which thrives in hot, highly acidic conditions in an Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site at an abandoned mine at Iron Mountain, Calif. A report on the research, "Community proteomics of a natural microbial biofilm, " appears online today in Science Express. "This is the first effort to accumulate information on genes that are expressed within a natural community, and one that has a major environmental impact, " said Michael Thelen, a protein biochemist at Lawrence Livermore. "One of the most interesting things we found is that there are large numbers of proteins that don't resemble any other proteins we know about. Many are enzymes that function to maintain the correct structure of other proteins that are exposed to the unusually harsh acidic environment. " The Iron Mountain microbial community, which consists of bacteria and archaea, has been under study for nine years by a research team lead by Jill Banfield, professor of earth and planetary science and of environmental science, policy and management at UC Berkeley. Last year it became the first microbial community characterized at the genetic level through large-scale genome sequencing at the DOE Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, Calif. "This work illustrates the power of the genome sequencing done at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute to contribute to understanding the microbiological communities living at contaminated sites, " said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, Director of DOE's Office of Science. "Now scientists can investigate not only the 'community genome, ' but also the resulting 'community proteome' for enzymes and pathways that can help clean up some of the worst environmental sites in the nation. This underscores the value of basic research carried out by the DOE Genomics:GTL Program that can develop novel approaches and solutions to national challenges. " The microorganisms, known as "extremophiles" for their affinity to harsh environments, grow as a biofilm at the Richmond Mine near Redding in Northern California. The complex interaction of microbes, water and exposed ore at the mine has generated dangerously high levels of sulfuric acid and toxic heavy metals, known as acid mine drainage. The microbes are densely packed in the pink biofilm, which is just a few millimeters thick and floats on the surface of the mine water. The biofilm is a self-sustaining system, using carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere within the mine and deriving energy from iron that has been leached out of the iron sulfide rock, also known as pyrite or "fool's gold. " The researchers used an analytical technique called mass spectrometry to identify the proteins present in the biofilm, then correlated them with genes from each of the major organisms identified in the earlier genomic study. They found that many community functions, such as nitrogen fixation, are handled by specialized microbes. "We found a cytochrome protein made in abundance by one bacterial member of the community, Leptospirillum Group II, that's a key factor connecting the biology with the environmental surroundings it's likely the first step in iron oxidation through an electron capture by the cytochrome, " Thelen said. "We also found that a different bacterium, Leptospirillum Group III, apparently makes more of the polysaccharide that is needed as a matrix or housing material for the biofilm community. " Thelen said researchers still have much to learn about the molecular mechanisms involved in assembling microbial communities, the partitioning of metabolic tasks within the communities, and how carbon, nitrogen and energy resources are allocated into metabolic pathways. The information could ultimately be useful for understanding the functioning of biofilms in a variety of environments, including some with implications for human health. "These organisms have evolved to adapt to their specific environment, " Thelen said, "and as they invent new methods for doing this, they come up with genes that are different enough from other organisms to enable them to survive in that particular niche. We just have started to find how many of these genes are not understood. It's just now coming to light how much of the genome is still a mystery. "

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Bags And Packaging Have Equal Importance. [coach]6/12/2013 11:35:33 AM
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Lauren Also Play Exclusive Custom [coach]6/8/2013 1:56:20 AM
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